Lemuel Bryant's Travel Journal, 1832
The Black Hawk War (April–July 1832) quelled the last Indian resistance to white settlement in the region around Chicago. The famous
leader, Black Hawk, and his thousand followers had been expelled from Illinois in 1831, but returned from Iowa carrying seeds for planting. Hostilities commenced after inexperienced militia attacked an Indian delegation approaching with a white flag. Thereafter, Black Hawk and Indian supporters joined in warfare that provoked the mobilization of about seven thousand American soldiers, bringing the first regular army troops—and the first cholera
—into the Upper
Most of Black Hawk's band was killed trying to flee west. Black Hawk with his son and the Winnebago Prophet, surrendered at Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin, and were imprisoned until the summer of 1833. In that year,
ceded the last of their lands in northeastern Illinois, promoting the first development of the Chicago area.
Black Hawk (Ma-ka-tai-me-she-kia-kiak).
Black Hawk: An Autobiography.
Ed. Donald D. Jackson. 1955.
Lurie, Nancy O. “In Search of Chaetan: New Findings on Black Hawk's Surrender.”
Wisconsin Magazine of History
71.3 (Spring 1988): 163–183.
Tanner, Helen Hornbeck, ed.
Atlas of Great Lakes Indian History.