As early as the 1930s, local radio programming in languages other than English served some of Chicago's larger linguistic communities. In 1956
a national trade publication, added foreign-language categories to its surveys of radio station formats, providing a minimum for estimates of such broadcasting over time. The categories changed over time, and some categories, such as Native American and Jewish, have characterized audience groups rather than languages. Occasionally, as in the case of Latin and French, instructional programming was included in Broadcasting Yearbook's survey of foreign-language programming.